Teeth are held in place by surrounding gums, bones, and other structures ( periodontal ligament ). But gum disease can cause the bone to break down.
Techniques that can stimulate the growth of new bone or adjoining tissues are called regenerative procedures.
Getting back even half the lost bone height extends the life of the tooth for more than 5-10 years.
Aims of periodontal regeneration
To improve the life of a tooth and restore its health to maximum
Reduce the periodontal pockets/ gum pockets
Increasing the attachment of gums to teeth
One type of regenerative procedure is called guided tissue regeneration (GTR).
What is GTR
In a systematic manner, a barrier membrane is used to guide or direct the growth of new bone and gum tissue around teeth or implants.
Periodontal disease, or periodontitis, is a process where bacteria trapped under the gums leads to chronic infection and subsequent breakdown of the hard and soft tissues supporting the teeth. In certain cases, the destruction leads to gaps between the teeth and bone. These gaps, or bone defects, often need a specialized material known as a bone graft.
Grafts are placed in the gaps (the gap between the gum and the tooth where the bone is lost) or bone defects to promote new bone growth.
To make sure that only one type of growth cell accumulates there from the graft, GTR uses a resorbable or non-resorbable artificial membrane to keep soft tissue from growing into the defect sites. This membrane is crucial because it blocks the soft tissue cells from growing into the site, and allows bone-producing cells to populate and grow there instead.